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Tag Archives: international trade

Peter May — Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) and international trade

This discussion has foundered on the rocks of semantics. The assertion is that imports are a real benefit and exports are a real cost. This is means that real resources are being transferred from domestic use in the case of exports, which is a real cost domestically, and real resources are being received in the case of imports, which is a real benefit domestically.Countries trade with each other either to obtain goods less expensively than they can be produced domestically, or to obtain...

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Trade and Finance

Teaching a course on international economics (trade and finance) for international relations students. More on that later. Just wanted to post the exports to GDP ratio for the world. This is to give students a sense of the increase in trade in the last few decades, and also the relative stagnation since the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. Note that while exports are about US$ 23 trillion in a year, the daily turnover in the foreign exchange market is about US$ 5 trillion, according to the...

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Foreign Trade And Non-Uniform Rates Of Profits

This post raises a question. Supposedly, the classical concept of prices of production with non-uniform rates of profits can be recast as a theory of foreign trade. I do not see how wages can properly be treated in such recasting. D'Agata (2018) and Zambelli (2018) are two recent papers that argue prices of production can be formulated with non-uniform rates of profits. They argue that this introduces a certain indeterminateness into prices, as in some of my examples of foreign trade....

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Variation Of Gains From Trade With International Prices

Figure 1: Intercepts of Production Possibilities Frontiers for England1.0 Introduction In this example, gains and losses from trade vary with international prices. Given rates of profits are compatible with an interval of relative international prices for linen and corn, when trade exists only in consumer goods. I explore whether, when trade exists in capital and consumer goods, more than one pattern of specialization among countries is possible, depending on relative international...

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Gain or Loss from Trade with Multiple Equilibria

Figure 1: Production Possibility Frontiers1.0 Introduction Suppose foreign trade is possible in consumption goods, but not in capital goods. In this example, whether or not England achieves gains from trade depends on relative international prices. If foreign trade were possible in both consumption and capital goods, both England and Portugal would obtain gains from trade. The numeric example in this post is a modification of one in a previous post. As I understand it, most students of...

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Elsewhere

Matthew Klein writes, in Barron's, about "Tarrifs and the Minimum Wage Are More Alike Than You Think". I disagree with some of the stuff in the middle about efficiency and reject the dualistic notion that government intervention is a meaningful concept. But this article otherwise parallels some of my arguments here. Josh Mason has made available his piece in Jacobin about the state of economics after the global financial catastrophe. The Review of Political Economy has made available...

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Gains And Losses From Foreign Trade: A Numeric Example

Figure 1: Production Possibility Frontiers1.0 Introduction This post presents a numeric example of foreign trade in a model of the production of commodities by means of commodities. This is a modification of the model here, which considers a flow-input, point output technology. As usual, I show neoclassical economics is mistaken. Frictions, increasing returns, information asymmetries, principal agent problems, and so on do not need to be introduced to explain why the outcomes of free...

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Timothy Taylor — Some Facts on Global Current Account Balances

Maybe the trade war with China isn't actually about MAGA at all, but just economic warfare against a rising competitor. If trade surplus are so "unfair," why is the focus not on Germany given the figures, enquiring minds want to know. Or, do Donald Trump and his economic team not realize this?Conversable EconomistSome Facts on Global Current Account BalancesTimothy Taylor | Managing editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives, based at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota

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An Analysis of Financial Flows in the Canadian Economy

An essential but perhaps overlooked way of looking at the economy is a sector financial balance approach. Pioneered by the late UK economist Wynne Godley, this approach starts with National Accounts data (called Financial Flow Accounts) for four broad sectors of the economy: households, corporations, government and non-residents. Here’s how it works: in any given quarter or year each sector can be a net borrower or lender, but the sum of the four sectors’ borrowing/lending must equal to...

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A Country Worse Off With Trade In Capital Goods

Figure 1: PPFs in Portugal1.0 Introduction This post continues these two posts. I change the model here to have wages advanced, not paid out of the surplus at the end of the year. I here consider an example of a model of stationary states in which two countries can trade in produced commodities to be used for consumption. The countries face given prices on international markets for traded commodities. (They are small open economies, in the jargon.) I take the rate of profits as given in...

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